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Structure: ‘Direct and indirect objects’

What are direct and indirect objects?

Objects in sentences

The object of a sentence is the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb.

  • Let’s contact the company (object).
  • Open that chart (object).
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Structure: ‘Present perfect 4’

Present perfect simple vs present perfect continuous

Form of present perfect simple and continuous

Present perfect simple form

  • subject + have / has + past participle (+ object, place, time….)
    • I have flown many Boeing planes in my career.
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Structure: Question words

Asking questions

Asking yes / no questions

We can use yes / no questions to ask some questions. However, the answers can only be yes or no.

  • eg Do you fly the 737?
    • Yes I fly the 737 / No I don’t fly the 737.
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Structure: Cardinal & ordinal numbers

What are cardinal and ordinal numbers?

Cardinal numbers

We use cardinal numbers to talk about quantity.

eg I have two flights tomorrow.

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Structure: Word categories

This time in our structure help we talk about word categories in English. This is vital to understand why certain words are acceptable in some situations, while other words aren’t acceptable.

When we think about word categories some of the most common categories are; nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions.

Nouns can refer to people (or other creatures), places or things.
Examples: Peter, friend, cat, table, book.

Verbs are words that relate to actions or states.
Examples: work, eat, fly.

Adjectives are describing words.
Examples: big, fast, happy.

Adverbs are formed by a large group of words that is impossible to go through here. However, some of the most common adverbs are ones that express ‘how something happens’ (slowly, quickly, easily etc…) or ‘how often something happens’ (usually, normally, never, sometimes etc…).

Prepositions are words that connect parts of a sentence and show the relationship between them.
Examples: in, on, at, with etc…

A good student’s dictionary like the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English tells you the category of a word you search for. By knowing the category of a word you can more easily use it in sentences. This is also a good way to build vocabulary because words often have some different forms; a verb, adjective and noun for example. By knowing each of these individual forms you are more easily able to use the correct one when necessary.

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Structure: too vs either

The difference between ‘too’ & ‘either’

This time in our structure help we talk about the difference between too and either. These two words are used in the context of adding a secondary point which is negative, however there is an important difference between them. Look at the following example.

We didn’t have good weather two days ago and we didn’t have good weather yesterday either.

In this case we can use either (but not too) when we have; negative statement + negative statement. Let’s look at when we can use too.

I spoke to the chief pilot, but I didn’t speak to the captain too.

In this case we can see that the structure is a little different, with too we use; positive statement + negative statement. We can use as well and also in the same way as too. Here are some more examples.

I didn’t send the report on Monday and I didn’t send it on Tuesday either. (negative + negative)

I had a simulator session in the morning, but I didn’t have one in the afternoon too / as well / also. (positive + negative)

We didn’t have to go around and the flight after us didn’t have to go around either. (negative + negative)

I met the captain for a coffee, but I didn’t meet the co-pilot too / as well / also.

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