ICAO level 4 structure/grammar checklist

Below are the structures that ICAO considers to be ‘basic’ structures. Candidates who want to achieve level 4 should have a good command of these structures and should be able to use them in whatever situation they are needed. Simple errors with these structures are expected but overall communication errors should be infrequent. The examiner should almost always be able to understand your ideas. 

Candidates should not use only these structures but should try to use more complex structures when they can, although level 4 candidates are not expected to use complex structures well.

If you’re not sure about any of these structures search for the structure on this website to learn more about it and review it. 

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Articles

  • a
  • an
  • the

Adverbs of frequency

  • always
  • generally
  • usually
  • often
  • sometimes
  • seldom
  • never

Modal verbs

  • can
  • could
  • may
  • might
  • must
  • should
  • ought to
  • would

Cardinal numbers

  • one
  • two
  • three etc…

Ordinal numbers

  • first
  • second
  • third etc…

Passive voice

  • present simple passive
  • past simple passive

Direct objects

  • I gave the crew their schedule.

Indirect objects

  • I gave the crew their schedule.

Question words

  • what
  • who
  • which
  • why
  • where
  • how
  • when

Relative clauses

  • The man who felt sick was the captain.

Present simple

  • He has a flight. [positive, negative, question]

Present continuous

  • She is working. [positive, negative, question]

Past simple

  • We flew to US last week. [positive, negative, question]

Past continuous

  • I was working at 8pm yesterday. [positive, negative, question]

Present perfect

  • I have flown a 747. [positive, negative, question, have you ever….?]

Present perfect continuous

  • I have been reading for an hour. [positive, negative, question]

Future simple

  • I will (I’ll) talk to them tomorrow. [positive, negative, question]

‘Going to’ future

  • I’m going to meet the chief pilot soon [positive, negative, question]

There is / are

  • There is / are…
  • There was / were…
  • There will be…
  • There is / are going to be…
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